Biology Courses

BL 1150. Biology of the Contemporary Scene (3) 
A course for non-science majors covering basic biological concepts and their application to current problems and philosophies. Lecture and discussion. Course is offered both semesters. For non-science majors. Concurrently: BL 1151. (SCI)

BL 1151. Biology of the Contemporary Scene Lab (1) 
A laboratory course to be taken concurrently with BL 1150. This course provides laboratory exercises requiring the use of the scientific method to understand biological concepts. Emphasis is placed on approaches used by scientists to study biological problems. For non-science majors. Lab fee. Concurrently: BL 1150. (SCI)

BL 1250. General Biology I (3) 
This course addresses selected basic biological concepts and principles within the framework of the scientific method and modern evolutionary theory. Emphasis is on cellular biology with topics including the basic chemistry, structure, regulation, energy transformation, photosynthesis, respiration, reproduction and genetics of living systems. Coverage includes those cellular principles most important to the understanding of living organisms and (along with BL 1300 and 1301) provides the student with the foundation for the remainder of the courses of the department. Course is offered both semesters. Concurrently: BL 1251. (SCI)

BL 1251. General Biology I Lab (1) 
A laboratory course to be taken concurrently with BL 1250. Exercises reinforce concepts taught in BL 1250. Lab fee. Concurrently: BL 1250. (SCI)

BL 1260. General Biology I, Honors (3)
A course in basic biological concepts and principles. In addition to the concepts covered in BL 1250, the course emphasizes independent investigative methods and the development of critical scientific methodology. Course is offered fall semesters. Prerequisite: Acceptance into honors program or department approval. Concurrently: BL 1261. (SCI)

BL 1261. General Biology I Lab, Honors (1)
Laboratory experiences emphasize independent research topics and development of research skills. Lab fee. Concurrently: BL 1261. (SCI)

BL 1300. General Biology II (3)
This second semester general biology course focuses on ecological and evolutionary concepts. Fungi, plants, and animals will be compared with respect to their phylogeny, reproductive cycles, nutrition, nutrient transport, and response to environmental stimuli. Course is offered both semesters. Prerequisite: BL 1250/1251 or BL 1260/1261. Concurrently: BL 1301.

BL 1301. General Biology II Lab (1)
Labs meet weekly for three hours and support concepts taught in lecture. Course is offered both semesters. Lab fee. Prerequisite: BL 1250/1251. Concurrently: BL 1300. 

BL 2929. Cellular Basis for Human Anatomy & Physiology (1)
This course is designed specifically for nursing students. (Pre-OT students should not take this course.) Contents include general biology topics such as cell anatomy, cell chemistry, Mendelian genetics, elementary principles of ontogeny, mitosis and meiosis. Course is offered in spring semesters and will meet twice weekly for the first eight weeks of the semester. Prerequisite: CH 1050 and CH 1060 or equivalent. Concurrently: BL 2930 and BL 2931. 

BL 2930. Human Anatomy and Physiology I (3)
Introduction to the anatomy and physiology of the human body. The course begins with a review of homeostasis, basic histology and the general body plan. The integumentary, skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory and immune systems are then covered in detail. The study of each of these systems is organized around the central concept of homeostasis. Considerable time is devoted to the composition and maintenance of body fluids. Course is offered spring semesters. Prerequisite: BL 1250 or equivalent or approval (For nursing students, BL 2929). Concurrently: BL 2931.

BL 2931. Human Anatomy and Physiology I Lab (1) 
The lab supports concepts and systems covered in the lecture. Human anatomy is emphasized in the lab and studied in part through the dissection of the cat. Lab fee. Concurrently: BL 2930. 

BL 2940. Human Anatomy and Physiology II (3)
Sequential course to BL 2930. Includes discussion of the anatomy and physiology of the remaining systems, including cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, digestive, immunological, reproductive, and renal. Overview of the embryology of each system is also included. Course is offered fall semesters. Prerequisite: BL 2930 or equivalent or approval. Concurrently: BL 2941. 

BL 2941. Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab (1)
Reinforces material covered in BL 2940 using experiments, models and prosections. Lab fee. Concurrently: BL 2940.

BL 2965. Accelerated Human Anatomy and Physiology (6)
A one-semester course in human anatomy and physiology designed for the accelerated nursing student with or without previous background in the subject. The course covers homeostatis, basic histology and general body design. Eleven body systems are covered in detail with considerable time devoted to composition and maintenance of body fluids.  The lecture portion of the course is conducted online with exams and labs on campus. The lab portion of the course reinforces lecture material, using experiments, models, and dissections. Lab meets once a week. Lab fee. Prerequisite: BA or BS degree.

BL 3100. Microbiology (3) 
The morphology, physiology and nutrition of micro-organisms and their role in nature and infection and immunity. Course is offered fall and spring. Prerequisite: BL 1250 or equivalent, or BL 2930. Concurrently: BL 3101.

BL 3101. Microbiology Lab (1) 
A study of the techniques of microbiology, isolation, cultivation, observation, identification and immunological principles and practices. Lab fee. Concurrently: BL 3100. 

BL 3200. Invertebrate Zoology (2) 
An in-depth study of the form, phylogenetic relationships, ecology, anatomy, special adaptations and evolution of protozoans and animals. Course is offered spring semesters. Prerequisite: BL 1300/1301 or equivalent. Concurrently: BL 3201. (SCII)

BL 3201. Invertebrate Zoology Lab (1)
Reinforces concepts from BL 3200 through microscope work, dissections and observations of living invertebrates. Lab fee. Concurrently: BL 3200. (SCII)

BL 3230. Animal Behavior (3) 
An ethnological course studying the mechanics and evolution of behavior. The course includes historical ethology and its arguments, basic neural mechanisms, releasors, sign stimuli, learning theory, complex individual and social behaviors, species interactions and the evolution of behavior. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in PY 1000 Introduction to Psychology or PY 1000 Honors Introduction to Psychology, and BL 1300/1301, or instructor approval.

BL 3350. Plant Biology (2)
Introduction to the structure, functions, classification and phylogeny of the plant kingdom. Course is offered fall semesters. Prerequisite: BL 1300/1301 or instructor approval. Concurrently: BL 3351.

BL 3351. Plant Biology Lab (1)
Reinforces concepts learned in BL 3300 through experiments and observation of living and preserved plants. Lab fee. Concurrently: BL 3350.

BL 3400. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (3)
A comparative study of the structure, function and development of vertebrate organ systems. Some emphasis is also placed on theories concerning the evolution of vertebrates based on anatomical comparisons. Prerequisite: BL 1250/1251 or 1260/1261 or equivalent. Concurrently: BL 3401.

BL 3401. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Lab (1)
Emphasizes, through dissection, the comparative and functional anatomy of organ systems in the shark, amphibian (salamander), reptile (turtle), bird and mammal (cat). Emphasis is also placed on dissection technique. Lab fee. Concurrently: BL 3400. 

BL 3430. Seminar in Genetics (1)
A discussion of genetics papers of historical and current interest. Prerequisite: BL 3610 or concurrently.

BL 3450. Embryology and Developmental Biology (3)
The study of the origin and development of organisms (with emphasis on animals) through consideration of the embryonic processes and study of successive changes producing adult forms. Emphasis in lecture is on the nature of the processes which initiate and control development. Some time is also spent examining other developmental processes including aging, cancer and birth defects. Prerequisite: BL 2930 or BL 3400 or instructor approval. Concurrently: BL 3451.

BL 3451. Embryology and Developmental Biology Lab (1) 
Emphasis in lab is on the sequential structural changes (morphogenesis) which occur during embryonic development in selected organisms including the sea urchin, frog, chick and pig. Some lab time is also devoted to experimental analysis of development. Lab fee. Concurrently: BL 3450. 

BL 3610. Genetics (3) 
Fall and Spring semester
A study of the principles of heredity and the operation of hereditary factors in the development of plants and animals. Lecture three hours a week. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in BL 1300/1301 and junior/senior standing or instructor approval. Concurrently: BL 3611.

BL 3611. Genetics Lab (1) 
A laboratory to reinforce concepts taught in BL 3610. Topics include classical, molecular, and population genetics. Students will perform and analyze genetic crosses in living model organisms, complete hands-on laboratory experimentation in molecular genetics, and analyze population genetics data. Lab fee. Concurrently: BL 3610. 

BL 3620. Cell Biology (3) 
A study of the structure, chemical and molecular, and function of the cell. While the eukaryotic cell and its components are the primary consideration, prokaryotic cells are studied and compared with their evolved descendants. Prerequisites: A grade of C or better in BL 1250/1251 or 1260/1261 or equivalent, and CH 2630 or 2650 or equivalent, and junior senior standing or instructor approval. Corequisite: BL 3621.

BL 3621. Cell Biology Lab (1) 
The student is introduced to those investigative techniques which are used in molecular and cell studies such as Gel Electrophoresis, Affinity Chromatography, Enzyme and ELISA assays, Blotting Techniques, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Genetic Engineering, DNA Fingerprinting, Cell Surface Receptor Identification and other pertinent techniques unique to cell investigation. Lab fee. Concurrently: BL 3620.

BL 3640. Bioinformatics (3)
A study of techniques that are being used to rapidly advance the fields of molecular biology, medicine and genetics. This course utilizes computer technology to teach the theory and application of current techniques for exploring cell and molecular biology. Recent developments in the area of bioinformatics will be emphasized. Topics will include DNA sequencing, restriction enzymes, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), genome sequences, genome expression, DNA sequence alignments, phylogenetic trees, proteomics, and protein structure prediction. Prerequisite: BL 3610.

BL 3650. Molecular Biology (3)
A combined lecture and laboratory for the study of the chemical nature of DNA and the mechanisms and effects of gene expression. The molecular biology of prokaryotic organisms, eukaryotic organisms, and viruses will be examined, with an emphasis on genetic recombination, mapping, and expression. Advanced topics, such as the genetics of cancer and developmental genetics, will be approached through the analysis of current research in these fields. Prerequisite: BL 3610 and junior/senior standing.

BL 3700. General Physiology (3)
A comparative study of variations in, and adaptation to, physiological problems presented to animals and plants. Although cell physiology is noted, emphasis is placed upon the organismic level. All eleven systems are covered. Prerequisite: BL 1250/1251 or 1260/1261 or equivalent. Concurrently: BL 3701.

BL 3701. General Physiology Lab (1)
A laboratory course to reinforce the concepts learned in BL 3700. Lab fee. Concurrently: BL 3700. 

BL 3900. Biology Field Trip (2)
An opportunity for biology majors to be exposed to the major ecosystems of North or Central America. A two-week intensive field experience that is prefaced by a semester-long weekly seminar discussing the uniqueness and general ecology of each ecosystem/biome to be visited on the trip. Areas visited have included Florida and the Keys, the desert southwest, montane regions of Colorado, Yellowstone National Park, and the Boundary Waters of Minnesota. One credit hour for the seminar and one credit for the field trip. Under extraordinary circumstances a student may take, with permission, the course for one credit hour for both seminar and trip. No more than 4 hours from this listing may be counted towards a biology major for any individual student.

BL 3910. Introduction to Research (1)
A course in the proper approach to research including library utilization, computer “search techniques” and experimental design. Each student is taught to complete all the steps necessary to implement a scientific research program. 
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

BL 3960. Biology Seminar (1) 
Presentations by junior and senior students on a topic chosen each semester. Students are taught basic library search skills and are familiarized with Linda Hall Library. Attendance is open to all faculty and students.

BL 3990. Research Projects, Introductory (1-3)
The student plans and attempts a series of original laboratory investigations of a scientifically significant problem planned in weekly consultation with the supervising faculty member, conducts the necessary literature searches, maintains a professional style laboratory notebook, makes at least one oral presentation of results, and prepares a research report according to standards established by the department. Lab fee. Prerequisite: Instructor approval.

BL 4200. Parasitology (3)
A combined lecture and laboratory for the study of plant and animal parasites throughout the world. Emphasis includes the evolution of parasitism, host-parasite ecology, human activities contributing to parasitism, and diagnostic techniques.  Lab fee. Prerequisite: BL 1300/1301 or equivalent or instructor approval.

BL 4300. Plant Diversity (3) 
Principles of classification of plants, use of keys, identification of local angiosperm flora. Prerequisite: BL 3350 or equivalent or instructor approval. Concurrently: BL 4301.

BL 4301. Plant Diversity Lab (1)
The laboratory includes several field trips to study the plants in their natural habitat. Lab fee. Concurrently: BL 4300.

BL 4420. Histology (3) 
The functional anatomy of vertebrate tissues. Emphasis in lecture is placed on general and specific characteristics of tissues on both microscopic and ultramicroscopic levels, development of tissues (histogenesis) and changes in tissues occurring during an organism’s lifetime. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in BL 3400/3401 or equivalent. Corequisite: BL 4421.

BL 4421. Histology Lab (1)
The laboratory emphasizes practical aspects of histology including microscopy, histochemistry and histopathology. Lab fee. Concurrently: BL 4420.

BL 4600. Biotechnology (3)
A study of experimental methods currently being used to rapidly advance the fields of molecular biology, medicine, genetics, and other areas in the biological sciences.This course combines lecture with laboratory to teach the theory and application of current techniques for exploring cellular and molecular biology. Techniques will include restriction mapping, protein and DNA purification, ELISA, bioinformatics and other modern techniques. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in BL 3610, and junior/senior standing or instructor approval.

BL 4700. Principles of Immunology (3)
A combined lecture and laboratory which studies the mechanisms involved in the response of organisms to foreign organisms or other agents. Specific and non-specific factors in immunity, natural and artificial immunity, the nature of antigens and antibodies and their reactions both in vivo and in vitro, immunogenetics, as well as the immunology of tumors and grafts are considered. Lab fee. Prerequisite: BL 1250 or equivalent or instructor approval. 

BL 4710. Human Reproductive and Developmental Physiology (2) 
A short course on the biology of human reproduction from gamete production and fertilization to implantation; formation of the embryo and the necessary physiology for the maintenance of both the maternal and fetal units in gestation. Prerequisite: BL 2940 or BL 3400 or instructor approval.

BL 4800. Evolution (3) 
A study of the evidence and mechanisms of evolution of all organisms. Basically a course in the theory of evolution including Hardy-Weinberg equilibria, genetic drift, niches and geographic, genetic and biological speciation. Prerequisite: BL 1300 or equivalent or approval. (SCII)

BL 4810. Ecology (3)
This course examines the composition, dynamics, and global distribution of abiotic and biotic parameters that influence populations and communities. Interactions and impacts among species and ecosystem processes are studied from a global perspective and related to the concept of sustainability. Lecture three hours a week. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in BL 1300/1301 or instructor approval. Corequisite: BL 4811.

BL 4811. Ecology Laboratory (1)
Field-intensive course with instruction in proper applications of statistics to ecological problems, sampling techniques in forest, grasslands, streams, ponds and lakes, and sampling from major taxons of plants, animals, fungi and protista. Lab fee. Concurrently: BL 4810 or department approval.

BL 4940. Advanced Principles of Biology (3)
The capstone course for biology will incorporate student-led seminars as starting points for discussions reviewing and integrating the major concepts of biology as applied across all kingdoms. Seminar and discussion. Prerequisite: Senior standing.

BL 4990. Research Projects, Advanced (1-3)
The student plans and attempts a series of original laboratory investigations of a scientifically significant problem planned in weekly consultation with the supervising faculty member, conducts the necessary literature searches, maintains a professional style laboratory notebook, makes at least one oral presentation of results, and prepares a research report according to standards established by the department. Lab fee. Prerequisite: Instructor approval.

BL 5400. Gross Anatomy (OT 5400) (4)
An integrated regional approach to the study of the structure and function of the human body with emphasis on the musculoskeletal and peripheral nervous system. The study of the fundamental tissues, organs, and other systems of the body cavities is also included. Prerequisite: acceptance into occupational therapy education or physical therapy education program. Concurrently: BL 5401.

BL 5401. Gross Anatomy Lab (OT 5401) (1)
Meets twice a week. Reinforces concepts from lecture through prosected material, bony specimen, radiographs, and palpation of living subjects and supervised dissection of human cadavers. Lab fee. Concurrently: BL 5400.